Articles on machine learning in trading

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Creating AI-based trading robots: native integration with Python, matrices and vectors, math and statistics libraries and much more.

Find out how to use machine learning in trading. Neurons, perceptrons, convolutional and recurrent networks, predictive models — start with the basics and work your way up to developing your own AI. You will learn how to train and apply neural networks for algorithmic trading in financial markets.

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Neural networks made easy (Part 20): Autoencoders

Neural networks made easy (Part 20): Autoencoders

We continue to study unsupervised learning algorithms. Some readers might have questions regarding the relevance of recent publications to the topic of neural networks. In this new article, we get back to studying neural networks.
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MQL5 Wizard techniques you should know (Part 03): Shannon's Entropy

MQL5 Wizard techniques you should know (Part 03): Shannon's Entropy

Todays trader is a philomath who is almost always looking up new ideas, trying them out, choosing to modify them or discard them; an exploratory process that should cost a fair amount of diligence. These series of articles will proposition that the MQL5 wizard should be a mainstay for traders.
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Neural networks made easy (Part 19): Association rules using MQL5

Neural networks made easy (Part 19): Association rules using MQL5

We continue considering association rules. In the previous article, we have discussed theoretical aspect of this type of problem. In this article, I will show the implementation of the FP Growth method using MQL5. We will also test the implemented solution using real data.
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Neural networks made easy (Part 18): Association rules

Neural networks made easy (Part 18): Association rules

As a continuation of this series of articles, let's consider another type of problems within unsupervised learning methods: mining association rules. This problem type was first used in retail, namely supermarkets, to analyze market baskets. In this article, we will talk about the applicability of such algorithms in trading.
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Neural networks made easy (Part 17): Dimensionality reduction

Neural networks made easy (Part 17): Dimensionality reduction

In this part we continue discussing Artificial Intelligence models. Namely, we study unsupervised learning algorithms. We have already discussed one of the clustering algorithms. In this article, I am sharing a variant of solving problems related to dimensionality reduction.
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Data Science and Machine Learning (Part 06): Gradient Descent

Data Science and Machine Learning (Part 06): Gradient Descent

The gradient descent plays a significant role in training neural networks and many machine learning algorithms. It is a quick and intelligent algorithm despite its impressive work it is still misunderstood by a lot of data scientists let's see what it is all about.
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Neural networks made easy (Part 14): Data clustering

Neural networks made easy (Part 14): Data clustering

It has been more than a year since I published my last article. This is quite a lot time to revise ideas and to develop new approaches. In the new article, I would like to divert from the previously used supervised learning method. This time we will dip into unsupervised learning algorithms. In particular, we will consider one of the clustering algorithms—k-means.
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Data Science and Machine Learning (Part 05): Decision Trees

Data Science and Machine Learning (Part 05): Decision Trees

Decision trees imitate the way humans think to classify data. Let's see how to build trees and use them to classify and predict some data. The main goal of the decision trees algorithm is to separate the data with impurity and into pure or close to nodes.
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How to master Machine Learning

How to master Machine Learning

Check out this selection of useful materials which can assist traders in improving their algorithmic trading knowledge. The era of simple algorithms is passing, and it is becoming harder to succeed without the use of Machine Learning techniques and Neural Networks.
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Data Science and Machine Learning (Part 04): Predicting Current Stock Market Crash

Data Science and Machine Learning (Part 04): Predicting Current Stock Market Crash

In this article I am going to attempt to use our logistic model to predict the stock market crash based upon the fundamentals of the US economy, the NETFLIX and APPLE are the stocks we are going to focus on, Using the previous market crashes of 2019 and 2020 let's see how our model will perform in the current dooms and glooms.
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Data Science and Machine Learning (Part 03): Matrix Regressions

Data Science and Machine Learning (Part 03): Matrix Regressions

This time our models are being made by matrices, which allows flexibility while it allows us to make powerful models that can handle not only five independent variables but also many variables as long as we stay within the calculations limits of a computer, this article is going to be an interesting read, that's for sure.
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Data Science and Machine Learning (Part 01): Linear Regression

Data Science and Machine Learning (Part 01): Linear Regression

It's time for us as traders to train our systems and ourselves to make decisions based on what number says. Not on our eyes, and what our guts make us believe, this is where the world is heading so, let us move perpendicular to the direction of the wave.
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Matrices and vectors in MQL5

Matrices and vectors in MQL5

By using special data types 'matrix' and 'vector', it is possible to create code which is very close to mathematical notation. With these methods, you can avoid the need to create nested loops or to mind correct indexing of arrays in calculations. Therefore, the use of matrix and vector methods increases the reliability and speed in developing complex programs.
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Multilayer perceptron and backpropagation algorithm (Part II): Implementation in Python and integration with MQL5

Multilayer perceptron and backpropagation algorithm (Part II): Implementation in Python and integration with MQL5

There is a Python package available for developing integrations with MQL, which enables a plethora of opportunities such as data exploration, creation and use of machine learning models. The built in Python integration in MQL5 enables the creation of various solutions, from simple linear regression to deep learning models. Let's take a look at how to set up and prepare a development environment and how to use use some of the machine learning libraries.
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Neural networks made easy (Part 12): Dropout

Neural networks made easy (Part 12): Dropout

As the next step in studying neural networks, I suggest considering the methods of increasing convergence during neural network training. There are several such methods. In this article we will consider one of them entitled Dropout.
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Neural networks made easy (Part 11): A take on GPT

Neural networks made easy (Part 11): A take on GPT

Perhaps one of the most advanced models among currently existing language neural networks is GPT-3, the maximal variant of which contains 175 billion parameters. Of course, we are not going to create such a monster on our home PCs. However, we can view which architectural solutions can be used in our work and how we can benefit from them.
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Multilayer perceptron and backpropagation algorithm

Multilayer perceptron and backpropagation algorithm

The popularity of these two methods grows, so a lot of libraries have been developed in Matlab, R, Python, C++ and others, which receive a training set as input and automatically create an appropriate network for the problem. Let us try to understand how the basic neural network type works (including single-neuron perceptron and multilayer perceptron). We will consider an exciting algorithm which is responsible for network training - gradient descent and backpropagation. Existing complex models are often based on such simple network models.
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Neural networks made easy (Part 10): Multi-Head Attention

Neural networks made easy (Part 10): Multi-Head Attention

We have previously considered the mechanism of self-attention in neural networks. In practice, modern neural network architectures use several parallel self-attention threads to find various dependencies between the elements of a sequence. Let us consider the implementation of such an approach and evaluate its impact on the overall network performance.
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Neural networks made easy (Part 9): Documenting the work

Neural networks made easy (Part 9): Documenting the work

We have already passed a long way and the code in our library is becoming bigger and bigger. This makes it difficult to keep track of all connections and dependencies. Therefore, I suggest creating documentation for the earlier created code and to keep it updating with each new step. Properly prepared documentation will help us see the integrity of our work.
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Neural networks made easy (Part 8): Attention mechanisms

Neural networks made easy (Part 8): Attention mechanisms

In previous articles, we have already tested various options for organizing neural networks. We also considered convolutional networks borrowed from image processing algorithms. In this article, I suggest considering Attention Mechanisms, the appearance of which gave impetus to the development of language models.
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Neural networks made easy (Part 7): Adaptive optimization methods

Neural networks made easy (Part 7): Adaptive optimization methods

In previous articles, we used stochastic gradient descent to train a neural network using the same learning rate for all neurons within the network. In this article, I propose to look towards adaptive learning methods which enable changing of the learning rate for each neuron. We will also consider the pros and cons of this approach.
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Gradient boosting in transductive and active machine learning

Gradient boosting in transductive and active machine learning

In this article, we will consider active machine learning methods utilizing real data, as well discuss their pros and cons. Perhaps you will find these methods useful and will include them in your arsenal of machine learning models. Transduction was introduced by Vladimir Vapnik, who is the co-inventor of the Support-Vector Machine (SVM).
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Neural networks made easy (Part 6): Experimenting with the neural network learning rate

Neural networks made easy (Part 6): Experimenting with the neural network learning rate

We have previously considered various types of neural networks along with their implementations. In all cases, the neural networks were trained using the gradient decent method, for which we need to choose a learning rate. In this article, I want to show the importance of a correctly selected rate and its impact on the neural network training, using examples.
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Neural networks made easy (Part 5): Multithreaded calculations in OpenCL

Neural networks made easy (Part 5): Multithreaded calculations in OpenCL

We have earlier discussed some types of neural network implementations. In the considered networks, the same operations are repeated for each neuron. A logical further step is to utilize multithreaded computing capabilities provided by modern technology in an effort to speed up the neural network learning process. One of the possible implementations is described in this article.
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Neural networks made easy (Part 4): Recurrent networks

Neural networks made easy (Part 4): Recurrent networks

We continue studying the world of neural networks. In this article, we will consider another type of neural networks, recurrent networks. This type is proposed for use with time series, which are represented in the MetaTrader 5 trading platform by price charts.
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Neural networks made easy (Part 3): Convolutional networks

Neural networks made easy (Part 3): Convolutional networks

As a continuation of the neural network topic, I propose considering convolutional neural networks. This type of neural network are usually applied to analyzing visual imagery. In this article, we will consider the application of these networks in the financial markets.
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CatBoost machine learning algorithm from Yandex with no Python or R knowledge required

CatBoost machine learning algorithm from Yandex with no Python or R knowledge required

The article provides the code and the description of the main stages of the machine learning process using a specific example. To obtain the model, you do not need Python or R knowledge. Furthermore, basic MQL5 knowledge is enough — this is exactly my level. Therefore, I hope that the article will serve as a good tutorial for a broad audience, assisting those interested in evaluating machine learning capabilities and in implementing them in their programs.
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Neural networks made easy (Part 2): Network training and testing

Neural networks made easy (Part 2): Network training and testing

In this second article, we will continue to study neural networks and will consider an example of using our created CNet class in Expert Advisors. We will work with two neural network models, which show similar results both in terms of training time and prediction accuracy.
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