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### Frequency domain representations of time series: The Power Spectrum

In this article we discuss methods related to the analysis of timeseries in the frequency domain. Emphasizing the utility of examining the power spectra of time series when building predictive models. In this article we will discuss some of the useful perspectives to be gained by analyzing time series in the frequency domain using the discrete fourier transform (dft).

### Category Theory in MQL5 (Part 8): Monoids

This article continues the series on category theory implementation in MQL5. Here we introduce monoids as domain (set) that sets category theory apart from other data classification methods by including rules and an identity element.

### Understand and Use MQL5 Strategy Tester Effectively

There is an essential need for MQL5 programmers or developers to master important and valuable tools. One of these tools is the Strategy Tester, this article is a practical guide to understanding and using the strategy tester of MQL5.

### Implementing an ARIMA training algorithm in MQL5

In this article we will implement an algorithm that applies the Box and Jenkins Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model by using Powells method of function minimization. Box and Jenkins stated that most time series could be modeled by one or both of two frameworks.

### MQL5 Wizard techniques you should know (Part 06): Fourier Transform

The Fourier transform introduced by Joseph Fourier is a means of deconstructing complex data wave points into simple constituent waves. This feature could be resourceful to traders and this article takes a look at that.

### Population optimization algorithms: ElectroMagnetism-like algorithm (ЕМ)

The article describes the principles, methods and possibilities of using the Electromagnetic Algorithm in various optimization problems. The EM algorithm is an efficient optimization tool capable of working with large amounts of data and multidimensional functions.

### Category Theory in MQL5 (Part 7): Multi, Relative and Indexed Domains

Category Theory is a diverse and expanding branch of Mathematics which is only recently getting some coverage in the MQL5 community. These series of articles look to explore and examine some of its concepts & axioms with the overall goal of establishing an open library that provides insight while also hopefully furthering the use of this remarkable field in Traders' strategy development.

### Population optimization algorithms: Saplings Sowing and Growing up (SSG)

Saplings Sowing and Growing up (SSG) algorithm is inspired by one of the most resilient organisms on the planet demonstrating outstanding capability for survival in a wide variety of conditions.

### Population optimization algorithms: Monkey algorithm (MA)

In this article, I will consider the Monkey Algorithm (MA) optimization algorithm. The ability of these animals to overcome difficult obstacles and get to the most inaccessible tree tops formed the basis of the idea of the MA algorithm.

### Population optimization algorithms: Harmony Search (HS)

In the current article, I will study and test the most powerful optimization algorithm - harmonic search (HS) inspired by the process of finding the perfect sound harmony. So what algorithm is now the leader in our rating?

### Category Theory in MQL5 (Part 6): Monomorphic Pull-Backs and Epimorphic Push-Outs

Category Theory is a diverse and expanding branch of Mathematics which is only recently getting some coverage in the MQL5 community. These series of articles look to explore and examine some of its concepts & axioms with the overall goal of establishing an open library that provides insight while also hopefully furthering the use of this remarkable field in Traders' strategy development.

### Population optimization algorithms: Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA)

GSA is a population optimization algorithm inspired by inanimate nature. Thanks to Newton's law of gravity implemented in the algorithm, the high reliability of modeling the interaction of physical bodies allows us to observe the enchanting dance of planetary systems and galactic clusters. In this article, I will consider one of the most interesting and original optimization algorithms. The simulator of the space objects movement is provided as well.

### Alan Andrews and his methods of time series analysis

Alan Andrews is one of the most famous "educators" of the modern world in the field of trading. His "pitchfork" is included in almost all modern quote analysis programs. But most traders do not use even a fraction of the opportunities that this tool provides. Besides, Andrews' original training course includes a description not only of the pitchfork (although it remains the main tool), but also of some other useful constructions. The article provides an insight into the marvelous chart analysis methods that Andrews taught in his original course. Beware, there will be a lot of images.

### Implementing the Janus factor in MQL5

Gary Anderson developed a method of market analysis based on a theory he dubbed the Janus Factor. The theory describes a set of indicators that can be used to reveal trends and assess market risk. In this article we will implement these tools in mql5.

### Data Science and Machine Learning(Part 14): Finding Your Way in the Markets with Kohonen Maps

Are you looking for a cutting-edge approach to trading that can help you navigate complex and ever-changing markets? Look no further than Kohonen maps, an innovative form of artificial neural networks that can help you uncover hidden patterns and trends in market data. In this article, we'll explore how Kohonen maps work, and how they can be used to develop smarter, more effective trading strategies. Whether you're a seasoned trader or just starting out, you won't want to miss this exciting new approach to trading.

### Neural networks made easy (Part 34): Fully Parameterized Quantile Function

We continue studying distributed Q-learning algorithms. In previous articles, we have considered distributed and quantile Q-learning algorithms. In the first algorithm, we trained the probabilities of given ranges of values. In the second algorithm, we trained ranges with a given probability. In both of them, we used a priori knowledge of one distribution and trained another one. In this article, we will consider an algorithm which allows the model to train for both distributions.

### Data Science and Machine Learning (Part 13): Improve your financial market analysis with Principal Component Analysis (PCA)

Revolutionize your financial market analysis with Principal Component Analysis (PCA)! Discover how this powerful technique can unlock hidden patterns in your data, uncover latent market trends, and optimize your investment strategies. In this article, we explore how PCA can provide a new lens for analyzing complex financial data, revealing insights that would be missed by traditional approaches. Find out how applying PCA to financial market data can give you a competitive edge and help you stay ahead of the curve

### Population optimization algorithms: Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO)

E. coli bacterium foraging strategy inspired scientists to create the BFO optimization algorithm. The algorithm contains original ideas and promising approaches to optimization and is worthy of further study.

### Category Theory in MQL5 (Part 3)

Category Theory is a diverse and expanding branch of Mathematics which as of yet is relatively uncovered in the MQL5 community. These series of articles look to introduce and examine some of its concepts with the overall goal of establishing an open library that provides insight while hopefully furthering the use of this remarkable field in Traders' strategy development.

### Population optimization algorithms: Invasive Weed Optimization (IWO)

The amazing ability of weeds to survive in a wide variety of conditions has become the idea for a powerful optimization algorithm. IWO is one of the best algorithms among the previously reviewed ones.

### Population optimization algorithms: Bat algorithm (BA)

In this article, I will consider the Bat Algorithm (BA), which shows good convergence on smooth functions.

### Population optimization algorithms: Firefly Algorithm (FA)

In this article, I will consider the Firefly Algorithm (FA) optimization method. Thanks to the modification, the algorithm has turned from an outsider into a real rating table leader.

### Measuring Indicator Information

Machine learning has become a popular method for strategy development. Whilst there has been more emphasis on maximizing profitability and prediction accuracy , the importance of processing the data used to build predictive models has not received a lot of attention. In this article we consider using the concept of entropy to evaluate the appropriateness of indicators to be used in predictive model building as documented in the book Testing and Tuning Market Trading Systems by Timothy Masters.

### Matrix Utils, Extending the Matrices and Vector Standard Library Functionality

Matrix serves as the foundation of machine learning algorithms and computers in general because of their ability to effectively handle large mathematical operations, The Standard library has everything one needs but let's see how we can extend it by introducing several functions in the utils file, that are not yet available in the library

### Population optimization algorithms: Fish School Search (FSS)

Fish School Search (FSS) is a new optimization algorithm inspired by the behavior of fish in a school, most of which (up to 80%) swim in an organized community of relatives. It has been proven that fish aggregations play an important role in the efficiency of foraging and protection from predators.

### Category Theory in MQL5 (Part 2)

Category Theory is a diverse and expanding branch of Mathematics which as of yet is relatively uncovered in the MQL5 community. These series of articles look to introduce and examine some of its concepts with the overall goal of establishing an open library that attracts comments and discussion while hopefully furthering the use of this remarkable field in Traders' strategy development.

### Population optimization algorithms: Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm (COA)

The next algorithm I will consider is cuckoo search optimization using Levy flights. This is one of the latest optimization algorithms and a new leader in the leaderboard.

### Data Science and Machine Learning (Part 10): Ridge Regression

Ridge regression is a simple technique to reduce model complexity and prevent over-fitting which may result from simple linear regression

### Population optimization algorithms: Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO)

Let's consider one of the newest modern optimization algorithms - Grey Wolf Optimization. The original behavior on test functions makes this algorithm one of the most interesting among the ones considered earlier. This is one of the top algorithms for use in training neural networks, smooth functions with many variables.

### Population optimization algorithms: Artificial Bee Colony (ABC)

In this article, we will study the algorithm of an artificial bee colony and supplement our knowledge with new principles of studying functional spaces. In this article, I will showcase my interpretation of the classic version of the algorithm.

### MQL5 Wizard techniques you should know (Part 05): Markov Chains

Markov chains are a powerful mathematical tool that can be used to model and forecast time series data in various fields, including finance. In financial time series modelling and forecasting, Markov chains are often used to model the evolution of financial assets over time, such as stock prices or exchange rates. One of the main advantages of Markov chain models is their simplicity and ease of use.

### Mountain or Iceberg charts

How do you like the idea of adding a new chart type to the MetaTrader 5 platform? Some people say it lacks a few things that other platforms offer. But the truth is, MetaTrader 5 is a very practical platform as it allows you to do things that can't be done (or at least can't be done easily) in many other platforms.

### Population optimization algorithms: Ant Colony Optimization (ACO)

This time I will analyze the Ant Colony optimization algorithm. The algorithm is very interesting and complex. In the article, I make an attempt to create a new type of ACO.

### Category Theory in MQL5 (Part 1)

Category Theory is a diverse and expanding branch of Mathematics which as of yet is relatively uncovered in the MQL community. These series of articles look to introduce and examine some of its concepts with the overall goal of establishing an open library that attracts comments and discussion while hopefully furthering the use of this remarkable field in Traders' strategy development.

### MQL5 Wizard techniques you should know (Part 04): Linear Discriminant Analysis

Todays trader is a philomath who is almost always looking up new ideas, trying them out, choosing to modify them or discard them; an exploratory process that should cost a fair amount of diligence. These series of articles will proposition that the MQL5 wizard should be a mainstay for traders in this effort.

### Developing an Expert Advisor from scratch (Part 30): CHART TRADE as an indicator?

Today we are going to use Chart Trade again, but this time it will be an on-chart indicator which may or may not be present on the chart.

### Population optimization algorithms: Particle swarm (PSO)

In this article, I will consider the popular Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Previously, we discussed such important characteristics of optimization algorithms as convergence, convergence rate, stability, scalability, as well as developed a test stand and considered the simplest RNG algorithm.

### Data Science and Machine Learning (Part 09): The K-Nearest Neighbors Algorithm (KNN)

This is a lazy algorithm that doesn't learn from the training dataset, it stores the dataset instead and acts immediately when it's given a new sample. As simple as it is, it is used in a variety of real-world applications.

### Neural networks made easy (Part 27): Deep Q-Learning (DQN)

We continue to study reinforcement learning. In this article, we will get acquainted with the Deep Q-Learning method. The use of this method has enabled the DeepMind team to create a model that can outperform a human when playing Atari computer games. I think it will be useful to evaluate the possibilities of the technology for solving trading problems.