Articles on strategy testing in MQL5

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How to develop, write and test a trading strategy, how to find the optimal system parameters and how to analyze the results? The MetaTrader platform offers developers of trading robots rich functionality for fast and accurate testing of trading ideas. Read these articles to learn how to test multi-currency robots and how to use MQL5 Cloud Network for optimization purposes.

Developers of automated trading systems are recommended to start with the testing fundamentals and tick generation algorithms in the strategy tester.

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Population optimization algorithms: Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm. Part I

Population optimization algorithms: Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm. Part I

The Simulated Annealing algorithm is a metaheuristic inspired by the metal annealing process. In the article, we will conduct a thorough analysis of the algorithm and debunk a number of common beliefs and myths surrounding this widely known optimization method. The second part of the article will consider the custom Simulated Isotropic Annealing (SIA) algorithm.
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Population optimization algorithms: Nelder–Mead, or simplex search (NM) method

Population optimization algorithms: Nelder–Mead, or simplex search (NM) method

The article presents a complete exploration of the Nelder-Mead method, explaining how the simplex (function parameter space) is modified and rearranged at each iteration to achieve an optimal solution, and describes how the method can be improved.
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Population optimization algorithms: Differential Evolution (DE)

Population optimization algorithms: Differential Evolution (DE)

In this article, we will consider the algorithm that demonstrates the most controversial results of all those discussed previously - the differential evolution (DE) algorithm.
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Python, ONNX and MetaTrader 5: Creating a RandomForest model with RobustScaler and PolynomialFeatures data preprocessing

Python, ONNX and MetaTrader 5: Creating a RandomForest model with RobustScaler and PolynomialFeatures data preprocessing

In this article, we will create a random forest model in Python, train the model, and save it as an ONNX pipeline with data preprocessing. After that we will use the model in the MetaTrader 5 terminal.
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MQL5 Wizard Techniques you should know (14): Multi Objective Timeseries Forecasting with STF

MQL5 Wizard Techniques you should know (14): Multi Objective Timeseries Forecasting with STF

Spatial Temporal Fusion which is using both ‘space’ and time metrics in modelling data is primarily useful in remote-sensing, and a host of other visual based activities in gaining a better understanding of our surroundings. Thanks to a published paper, we take a novel approach in using it by examining its potential to traders.
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Population optimization algorithms: Spiral Dynamics Optimization (SDO) algorithm

Population optimization algorithms: Spiral Dynamics Optimization (SDO) algorithm

The article presents an optimization algorithm based on the patterns of constructing spiral trajectories in nature, such as mollusk shells - the spiral dynamics optimization (SDO) algorithm. I have thoroughly revised and modified the algorithm proposed by the authors. The article will consider the necessity of these changes.
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Data Science and Machine Learning(Part 21): Unlocking Neural Networks, Optimization algorithms demystified

Data Science and Machine Learning(Part 21): Unlocking Neural Networks, Optimization algorithms demystified

Dive into the heart of neural networks as we demystify the optimization algorithms used inside the neural network. In this article, discover the key techniques that unlock the full potential of neural networks, propelling your models to new heights of accuracy and efficiency.
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Population optimization algorithms: Intelligent Water Drops (IWD) algorithm

Population optimization algorithms: Intelligent Water Drops (IWD) algorithm

The article considers an interesting algorithm derived from inanimate nature - intelligent water drops (IWD) simulating the process of river bed formation. The ideas of this algorithm made it possible to significantly improve the previous leader of the rating - SDS. As usual, the new leader (modified SDSm) can be found in the attachment.
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Developing a Replay System (Part 32): Order System (I)

Developing a Replay System (Part 32): Order System (I)

Of all the things that we have developed so far, this system, as you will probably notice and eventually agree, is the most complex. Now we need to do something very simple: make our system simulate the operation of a trading server. This need to accurately implement the way the trading server operates seems like a no-brainer. At least in words. But we need to do this so that the everything is seamless and transparent for the user of the replay/simulation system.
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Developing a Replay System (Part 31): Expert Advisor project — C_Mouse class (V)

Developing a Replay System (Part 31): Expert Advisor project — C_Mouse class (V)

We need a timer that can show how much time is left till the end of the replay/simulation run. This may seem at first glance to be a simple and quick solution. Many simply try to adapt and use the same system that the trading server uses. But there's one thing that many people don't consider when thinking about this solution: with replay, and even m ore with simulation, the clock works differently. All this complicates the creation of such a system.
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Developing a Replay System (Part 30): Expert Advisor project — C_Mouse class (IV)

Developing a Replay System (Part 30): Expert Advisor project — C_Mouse class (IV)

Today we will learn a technique that can help us a lot in different stages of our professional life as a programmer. Often it is not the platform itself that is limited, but the knowledge of the person who talks about the limitations. This article will tell you that with common sense and creativity you can make the MetaTrader 5 platform much more interesting and versatile without resorting to creating crazy programs or anything like that, and create simple yet safe and reliable code. We will use our creativity to modify existing code without deleting or adding a single line to the source code.
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Developing a Replay System (Part 29): Expert Advisor project — C_Mouse class (III)

Developing a Replay System (Part 29): Expert Advisor project — C_Mouse class (III)

After improving the C_Mouse class, we can focus on creating a class designed to create a completely new framework fr our analysis. We will not use inheritance or polymorphism to create this new class. Instead, we will change, or better said, add new objects to the price line. That's what we will do in this article. In the next one, we will look at how to change the analysis. All this will be done without changing the code of the C_Mouse class. Well, actually, it would be easier to achieve this using inheritance or polymorphism. However, there are other methods to achieve the same result.
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Population optimization algorithms: Charged System Search (CSS) algorithm

Population optimization algorithms: Charged System Search (CSS) algorithm

In this article, we will consider another optimization algorithm inspired by inanimate nature - Charged System Search (CSS) algorithm. The purpose of this article is to present a new optimization algorithm based on the principles of physics and mechanics.
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Deep Learning GRU model with Python to ONNX  with EA, and GRU vs LSTM models

Deep Learning GRU model with Python to ONNX with EA, and GRU vs LSTM models

We will guide you through the entire process of DL with python to make a GRU ONNX model, culminating in the creation of an Expert Advisor (EA) designed for trading, and subsequently comparing GRU model with LSTN model.
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Developing a Replay System (Part 28): Expert Advisor project — C_Mouse class (II)

Developing a Replay System (Part 28): Expert Advisor project — C_Mouse class (II)

When people started creating the first systems capable of computing, everything required the participation of engineers, who had to know the project very well. We are talking about the dawn of computer technology, a time when there were not even terminals for programming. As it developed and more people got interested in being able to create something, new ideas and ways of programming emerged which replaced the previous-style changing of connector positions. This is when the first terminals appeared.
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Developing a Replay System (Part 27): Expert Advisor project — C_Mouse class (I)

Developing a Replay System (Part 27): Expert Advisor project — C_Mouse class (I)

In this article we will implement the C_Mouse class. It provides the ability to program at the highest level. However, talking about high-level or low-level programming languages is not about including obscene words or jargon in the code. It's the other way around. When we talk about high-level or low-level programming, we mean how easy or difficult the code is for other programmers to understand.
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Developing a Replay System (Part 26): Expert Advisor project — C_Terminal class

Developing a Replay System (Part 26): Expert Advisor project — C_Terminal class

We can now start creating an Expert Advisor for use in the replay/simulation system. However, we need something improved, not a random solution. Despite this, we should not be intimidated by the initial complexity. It's important to start somewhere, otherwise we end up ruminating about the difficulty of a task without even trying to overcome it. That's what programming is all about: overcoming obstacles through learning, testing, and extensive research.
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MQL5 Wizard Techniques you should know (Part 12): Newton Polynomial

MQL5 Wizard Techniques you should know (Part 12): Newton Polynomial

Newton’s polynomial, which creates quadratic equations from a set of a few points, is an archaic but interesting approach at looking at a time series. In this article we try to explore what aspects could be of use to traders from this approach as well as address its limitations.
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Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 25): Preparing for the next phase

Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 25): Preparing for the next phase

In this article, we complete the first phase of developing our replay and simulation system. Dear reader, with this achievement I confirm that the system has reached an advanced level, paving the way for the introduction of new functionality. The goal is to enrich the system even further, turning it into a powerful tool for research and development of market analysis.
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Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 24): FOREX (V)

Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 24): FOREX (V)

Today we will remove a limitation that has been preventing simulations based on the Last price and will introduce a new entry point specifically for this type of simulation. The entire operating mechanism will be based on the principles of the forex market. The main difference in this procedure is the separation of Bid and Last simulations. However, it is important to note that the methodology used to randomize the time and adjust it to be compatible with the C_Replay class remains identical in both simulations. This is good because changes in one mode lead to automatic improvements in the other, especially when it comes to handling time between ticks.
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Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 23): FOREX (IV)

Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 23): FOREX (IV)

Now the creation occurs at the same point where we converted ticks into bars. This way, if something goes wrong during the conversion process, we will immediately notice the error. This is because the same code that places 1-minute bars on the chart during fast forwarding is also used for the positioning system to place bars during normal performance. In other words, the code that is responsible for this task is not duplicated anywhere else. This way we get a much better system for both maintenance and improvement.
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Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 22): FOREX (III)

Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 22): FOREX (III)

Although this is the third article on this topic, I must explain for those who have not yet understood the difference between the stock market and the foreign exchange market: the big difference is that in the Forex there is no, or rather, we are not given information about some points that actually occurred during the course of trading.
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Population optimization algorithms: Stochastic Diffusion Search (SDS)

Population optimization algorithms: Stochastic Diffusion Search (SDS)

The article discusses Stochastic Diffusion Search (SDS), which is a very powerful and efficient optimization algorithm based on the principles of random walk. The algorithm allows finding optimal solutions in complex multidimensional spaces, while featuring a high speed of convergence and the ability to avoid local extrema.
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Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 21): FOREX (II)

Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 21): FOREX (II)

We will continue to build a system for working in the FOREX market. In order to solve this problem, we must first declare the loading of ticks before loading the previous bars. This solves the problem, but at the same time forces the user to follow some structure in the configuration file, which, personally, does not make much sense to me. The reason is that by designing a program that is responsible for analyzing and executing what is in the configuration file, we can allow the user to declare the elements he needs in any order.
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Population optimization algorithms: Mind Evolutionary Computation (MEC) algorithm

Population optimization algorithms: Mind Evolutionary Computation (MEC) algorithm

The article considers the algorithm of the MEC family called the simple mind evolutionary computation algorithm (Simple MEC, SMEC). The algorithm is distinguished by the beauty of its idea and ease of implementation.
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Population optimization algorithms: Shuffled Frog-Leaping algorithm (SFL)

Population optimization algorithms: Shuffled Frog-Leaping algorithm (SFL)

The article presents a detailed description of the shuffled frog-leaping (SFL) algorithm and its capabilities in solving optimization problems. The SFL algorithm is inspired by the behavior of frogs in their natural environment and offers a new approach to function optimization. The SFL algorithm is an efficient and flexible tool capable of processing a variety of data types and achieving optimal solutions.
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Modified Grid-Hedge EA in MQL5 (Part II): Making a Simple Grid EA

Modified Grid-Hedge EA in MQL5 (Part II): Making a Simple Grid EA

In this article, we explored the classic grid strategy, detailing its automation using an Expert Advisor in MQL5 and analyzing initial backtest results. We highlighted the strategy's need for high holding capacity and outlined plans for optimizing key parameters like distance, takeProfit, and lot sizes in future installments. The series aims to enhance trading strategy efficiency and adaptability to different market conditions.
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Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 20): FOREX (I)

Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 20): FOREX (I)

The initial goal of this article is not to cover all the possibilities of Forex trading, but rather to adapt the system so that you can perform at least one market replay. We'll leave simulation for another moment. However, if we don't have ticks and only bars, with a little effort we can simulate possible trades that could happen in the Forex market. This will be the case until we look at how to adapt the simulator. An attempt to work with Forex data inside the system without modifying it leads to a range of errors.
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Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 19): Necessary adjustments

Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 19): Necessary adjustments

Here we will prepare the ground so that if we need to add new functions to the code, this will happen smoothly and easily. The current code cannot yet cover or handle some of the things that will be necessary to make meaningful progress. We need everything to be structured in order to enable the implementation of certain things with the minimal effort. If we do everything correctly, we can get a truly universal system that can very easily adapt to any situation that needs to be handled.
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Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 18): Ticks and more ticks (II)

Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 18): Ticks and more ticks (II)

Obviously the current metrics are very far from the ideal time for creating a 1-minute bar. That's the first thing we are going to fix. Fixing the synchronization problem is not difficult. This may seem hard, but it's actually quite simple. We did not make the required correction in the previous article since its purpose was to explain how to transfer the tick data that was used to create the 1-minute bars on the chart into the Market Watch window.
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Introduction to MQL5 (Part 1): A Beginner's Guide into Algorithmic Trading

Introduction to MQL5 (Part 1): A Beginner's Guide into Algorithmic Trading

Dive into the fascinating realm of algorithmic trading with our beginner-friendly guide to MQL5 programming. Discover the essentials of MQL5, the language powering MetaTrader 5, as we demystify the world of automated trading. From understanding the basics to taking your first steps in coding, this article is your key to unlocking the potential of algorithmic trading even without a programming background. Join us on a journey where simplicity meets sophistication in the exciting universe of MQL5.
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Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 17): Ticks and more ticks (I)

Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 17): Ticks and more ticks (I)

Here we will see how to implement something really interesting, but at the same time very difficult due to certain points that can be very confusing. The worst thing that can happen is that some traders who consider themselves professionals do not know anything about the importance of these concepts in the capital market. Well, although we focus here on programming, understanding some of the issues involved in market trading is paramount to what we are going to implement.
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Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 16): New class system

Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 16): New class system

We need to organize our work better. The code is growing, and if this is not done now, then it will become impossible. Let's divide and conquer. MQL5 allows the use of classes which will assist in implementing this task, but for this we need to have some knowledge about classes. Probably the thing that confuses beginners the most is inheritance. In this article, we will look at how to use these mechanisms in a practical and simple way.
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Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 15): Birth of the SIMULATOR (V) - RANDOM WALK

Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 15): Birth of the SIMULATOR (V) - RANDOM WALK

In this article we will complete the development of a simulator for our system. The main goal here will be to configure the algorithm discussed in the previous article. This algorithm aims to create a RANDOM WALK movement. Therefore, to understand today's material, it is necessary to understand the content of previous articles. If you have not followed the development of the simulator, I advise you to read this sequence from the very beginning. Otherwise, you may get confused about what will be explained here.
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Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 14): Birth of the SIMULATOR (IV)

Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 14): Birth of the SIMULATOR (IV)

In this article we will continue the simulator development stage. this time we will see how to effectively create a RANDOM WALK type movement. This type of movement is very intriguing because it forms the basis of everything that happens in the capital market. In addition, we will begin to understand some concepts that are fundamental to those conducting market analysis.
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Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 13): Birth of the SIMULATOR (III)

Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 13): Birth of the SIMULATOR (III)

Here we will simplify a few elements related to the work in the next article. I'll also explain how you can visualize what the simulator generates in terms of randomness.
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Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 12): Birth of the SIMULATOR (II)

Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 12): Birth of the SIMULATOR (II)

Developing a simulator can be much more interesting than it seems. Today we'll take a few more steps in this direction because things are getting more interesting.
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Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 11): Birth of the SIMULATOR (I)

Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 11): Birth of the SIMULATOR (I)

In order to use the data that forms the bars, we must abandon replay and start developing a simulator. We will use 1 minute bars because they offer the least amount of difficulty.
Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 10): Using only real data for Replay
Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 10): Using only real data for Replay

Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 10): Using only real data for Replay

Here we will look at how we can use more reliable data (traded ticks) in the replay system without worrying about whether it is adjusted or not.
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Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 09): Custom events

Developing a Replay System — Market simulation (Part 09): Custom events

Here we'll see how custom events are triggered and how the indicator reports the state of the replay/simulation service.